Everything you ever wanted to know about coaching and mentoring, and quite a lot that you probably didn't
What are Coaching and Mentoring?
Both coaching and mentoring are processes that enable both individual and corporate clients to achieve their full potential.
Coaching and mentoring share many similarities so it makes sense to outline the common things coaches and
mentors do whether the services are offered in a paid (professional) or unpaid (philanthropic) role.
- Facilitate the exploration of needs, motivations, desires, skills and thought processes to assist the
individual in making real, lasting change.
- Use questioning techniques to facilitate client's own thought processes in order to identify
solutions and actions rather than takes a wholly directive approach
- Support the client in setting appropriate goals and methods of assessing progress in relation to these goals
- Observe, listen and ask questions to understand the client's situation
- Creatively apply tools and techniques which may include one-to-one training, facilitating, counselling & networking.
- Encourage a commitment to action and the development of lasting personal growth & change.
- Maintain unconditional positive regard for the client, which means that the coach
is at all times supportive and non-judgemental of the client, their views, lifestyle
- Ensure that clients develop personal competencies and do not develop unhealthy
dependencies on the coaching or mentoring relationship.
- Evaluate the outcomes of the process, using objective measures wherever possible
to ensure the relationship is successful and the client is achieving their personal
- Encourage clients to continually improve competencies and to develop new
developmental alliances where necessary to achieve their goals.
- Work within their area of personal competence.
- Possess qualifications and experience in the areas that skills-transfer
coaching is offered.
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- Manage the relationship to ensure the client receives the appropriate level
of service and that programmes are neither too short, nor too long.
The common thread uniting all types of coaching & mentoring is that these
services offer a vehicle for analysis, reflection and action that ultimately
enable the client to achieve success in one more areas of their life or work.
Here are some published definitions we particularly like...
"a process that enables learning and development
to occur and thus performance to improve. To be a successful a Coach requires
a knowledge and understanding of process as well
as the variety of styles, skills and techniques that are appropriate to the
context in which the coaching takes place"
The Manager as Coach and Mentor (1999) page 8.
Eric is a respected author and Director of the
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"off-line help by one person to another in making significant
transitions in knowledge, work or thinking"
Clutterbuck, D & Megginson, D, Mentoring
Executives and Directors (1999) page 3 (available in the
David Clutterbuck & David Megginson are both founder members
of The European Mentoring and Coaching Council and highly respected authors, academics and consultants in the mentoring arena.
The difference between coaching and mentoring
As can be seen above, there are many similarities between coaching and mentoring!
Mentoring, particularly in its traditional sense, enables an individual to follow in
the path of an older and wiser colleague who can pass on knowledge, experience and
open doors to otherwise out-of-reach opportunities. Coaching on the other hand is
not generally performed on the basis that the coach has direct experience of their
client’s formal occupational role unless the coaching is specific and skills focused.
Having said this, there are professionals offering their services under the name
of mentoring who have no direct experience of their clients' roles and others offering
services under the name of coaching who do. So the moral of the story is, it is essential
to determine what your needs are and to ensure that the coach or mentor can supply you
with the type and level of service you require, whatever that service is called.
See also Finding the right service
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Business coaching & mentoring
Organisational development, changes brought about by mergers and acquisitions as
well as the need to provide key employees with support through a change of role or
career are often catalysts, which inspire companies to seek coaching or mentoring.
At one time coaching and mentoring were reserved for senior managers and company
directors, now it is available to all as a professional or personal development tool.
Coaching and mentoring are also closely linked with organisational change initiatives
in order to help staff to accept and adapt to changes in a manner consistent with
their personal values and goals.
Coaching & mentoring, both of which focus on the individual, can enhance morale,
motivation and productivity and reduce staff turnover as individuals feel valued and
connected with both small and large organisational changes. This role may be provided
by internal coaches or mentors and, increasingly, by professional coaching agencies.
Coaching and mentoring programmes generally prove to be popular amongst employees as
coaching achieves a balance between fulfilling organisational goals and objectives whilst
taking into account the personal development needs of individual employees. It is a two-way
relationship with both the organisation and the employee gaining significant benefits.
There is also an increasing trend for individuals to take greater responsibility for
their personal & professional development and even those who are employed in large
organisations are no longer relying on employers to provide them with all or their career
development needs. There has been an increase in the number of individuals contracting
coaches and mentors on a private basis. Some are looking for a career change, but many
are also seeking to maximise their potential with an existing employer or achieve greater
balance with their work and home lives.
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Executive Coaching & Mentoring
There is a great deal of overlap between business and executive coaching or mentoring.
Many people will offer either service, but there is a growing body of professionals in the
UK who are calling themselves executive coaches and mentors and are differentiating
themsleves in the marketplace. The key differences between business and executive coaching
and mentoring are that Executive coaches and mentors typically…
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- Have a track record in professional and executive roles
- Work exclusively with the ‘high-flyers’ or with those who have potential to be a high flyer
- Work at board or CEO level within high profile or ‘blue-chip’ organisations
- Offer total confidentiality
- Work with potential 'captains of industry' and high profile business leaders
Performance Coaching and mentoring
Many coaching clients will seek coaching or mentoring for performance enhancement rather
than the rectification of a performance issue. Coaching & mentoring have been shown to
be highly successful intervention in these cases. When an organisation is paying premium
rates for development services, performance is usually the key pay-back they are looking
for. Even if an executive or manager receives support in balancing work and home life, it
will be with the aim of increasing their effectiveness and productivity at work and not
for more altruistic reasons.
Performance coaching derives its theoretical underpinnings and models from business and
sports psychology as well as general management approaches.
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Skills coaching & mentoring
Skills coaching has some commonalities with one-to-one training. Skills coaches &
mentors combine a holistic approach to personal development with the ability to focus on
the core skills an employee needs to perform in their role. Skills coaches & mentors
should be highly experienced and competent in performing the skills they teach.
Job roles are changing at an ever increasing rate. Traditional training programmes are
often too inflexible or generic to deal with these fast moving requirements. In these
instances one-to-one skills coaching allows a flexible, adaptive ‘just-in-time’ approach
to skills development. It is also possible to apply skills coaching in ‘live’ environments
rather than taking people away from the job into a ‘classroom’ where it is less easy to
simulate the job environment.
Skills coaching programmes are tailored specifically to the individual, their knowledge,
experience, maturity and ambitions and is generally focused on achieving a number of
objectives for both the individual and the company. These objectives often include the
individual being able to perform specific, well-defined tasks whilst taking in to account
the personal and career development needs of the individual.
One-to-one skills training is not the same as the ‘sitting next to Nelly’ approach to
‘on the job training’. What differentiates it is that like any good personal or professional
development intervention it is based on an assessment of need in relation to the job-role,
delivered in a structured (but highly flexible) manner, and generates measurable learning
and performance outcomes. This form of skills training is likely to focus purely on the
skills required to perform the job function even though it may adopt a facilitative coaching
approach instead of a 'telling' or directive style.
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Personal coaching & mentoring
Personal or ‘life coaching’ is growing significantly in the UK, Europe and Australia.
Personal coaches may work face-to-face but email and telephone based relationships are
also very common. These coaches and mentors operate in highly supportive roles to those
who wish to make some form of significant change happen within their lives.
Coaches offer their clients a supportive and motivating environment to explore what
they want in life and how they might achieve their aspirations and fulfil their needs.
By assisting the client in committing to action and by being a sounding-board to their
experiences, coaching allows the individual the personal space and support they need to
grow and develop. The coach's key role is often is assisting the client to maintain the
motivation and commitment needed to achieve their goals.
In many cases personal coaching is differentiated from business coaching purely by the
context and the focus of the programme. Business coaching is always conducted within the
constraints placed on the individual or group by the organisational context. Personal coaching
on the other hand is taken entirely from the individual's perspective.
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How do coaching and mentoring compare with other services?
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Traditional forms of training
- Wholesale transfer of new skills, e.g. change in procedures, new systems (e.g.
software application training), new job function.
- Programmes are mostly generic and not tailored to individual needs. Delegates
generally have to complete standard modules, so there is little room for tailoring
the programme to account for existing knowledge, skills or preferences.
- Not always sufficiently similar to the ‘live’ working environment to ensure
effective skills transfer.
- Best suited to transfer of knowledge and certain skills rather than the development
of personal qualities or competencies
- Development activities are designed to suit client’s personal needs (whether aspiration or performance related) and learning styles.
- Fine tunes and develops skills.
- Can focus on interpersonal skills, which cannot be readily or effectively transferred
in a traditional training environment.
- Provides client with contacts and networks to assist with furthering their career or
- Performed in the ‘live’ environment or off-line.
- Highly effective when used as a means of supporting training initiatives to ensure
that key skills are transferred to the ‘live’ environment.
- Coaches and mentors transfer the skills to the client rather than doing the job for
- Explore personal issues and problems through discussion in order to increase
understanding or develop greater self-awareness.
- The aim of counselling is to lead the client toward self-directed actions to
achieve their goals.
N.B Coaching and counselling share many core skills. However, professional counsellors work with personal issues in much greater depth than would
generally be explored within a coaching context.
- Focus is on developing organisational practices, processes and structure.
- Role generally more strategic and often used to instigate and design broad ranging
- Consultancy frequently involves expert advice about specific issues and organisational
- Consultants are often brought in to provide specific ‘solutions’ to business problems
- Consultant leads the job for the organisation: whilst upskilling the employee/client may be a contractual part of the service, it is not generally the primary goal.
The term consultant coach is often used when the coach is external to the
organisation and therefore offering services on an ‘external’ or ‘consultancy’
basis. This is not, however, the same as consultancy per se.
Coaching and mentoring has been offered by consultancy companies for many years,
even though it is not specifically ‘consultancy’ It is only recently that people
have begun drawing a distinction which in some cases, like the distinction between
coaching and mentoring, is not useful in distinguishing between them.
Is coaching just therapy by another name?
Coaching is not ‘therapy’ by another name although the key theoretical underpinnings,
models and techniques found their origins in the field of psychology and associated
therapies like gestalt
& cognitive behavioural
therapy which have broad ranging applications in both organisational and personal contexts.
The key difference between coaching and the therapies is that coaching does not seek to
resolve the deeper underlying issues that are the cause of serious problems like poor
motivation, low self-esteem and poor job performance. Coaching and mentoring programmes
are generally more concerned with the practical issues of setting goals and achieving results
within specific time-scales.
Coaching and mentoring is generally commenced on the premise that clients are self-aware
and ‘whole’ and have selected coaching or mentoring because they do not require a therapeutic
intervention. It is possible for someone who has underlying issues to experience success within
a coaching context even if the underlying issues are not resolved. If, however, a client becomes
‘stuck’ and the coaching or mentoring programme is not achieving desired results, then a
psychological or therapeutic intervention may be necessary for the client to move forward and achieve their goals.
Coach & mentor training programmes which are typically quite short are not aimed at
qualifying coaches to conduct an assessment of whether someone may be in need of a
therapeutic intervention, rather than a coaching or mentoring one. This is driven in
part by the professional restrictions and barriers that have traditionally been placed
around psychology and the therapies, but is mostly due to the fact that psychological
assessment is a complex process that does require specialised training. Professional
coaches & mentors do, however, stay ever alert to the possibility that a client may
have or may develop issues or problems for which coaching or mentoring on it’s own, is not sufficient.
Client progress is always monitored and coaches and mentors watch for signs which
may indicate that a client requires an assessment by a trained therapist. Some coaches
will on-refer a client to an appropriate therapist if this is felt to be useful. Other
coaches will conduct a coaching programme in parallel with a therapeutic intervention.
Most coaches & mentors are keen to maintain the professional boundaries between
coaching & mentoring and the traditional therapies and will collaborate with therapists
when a client requires this form of intervention.
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The traditional therapies, psychology
and counselling and their relationship to coaching
Contrary to popular belief, therapy is not ‘backwards focused’ and does not conform to
the stereotype of spending 20 years attending weekly sessions to discuss childhood experiences.
See A Guide to Psychology and
its Practice for a more realistic & modern view of what clinical psychology and the
therapies have to offer.
Therapy is, if anything, an extension of what happens in a coaching relationship, it is
forward focused and aimed at life improvement or enhancement. It is about moving on and
breaking free from problems and issues that have held people back and prevented them from
getting all they can from their lives. Another popular misconception is that in order to
undergo therapy one must be ‘crazy’ or ‘neurotic’ which is not the case.
Therapy is also time-limited and based on an assessment of needs. It is quite rare now
to encounter therapies that involve open-ended interventions that last for many years.
Therapists are highly trained, with 4 years of full-time undergraduate training followed
by 1-2 years full-time post-graduate study and from 3-5 supervised full-time practice
before being considered ‘qualified’. Counsellors & clinical psychologists must also
engage in professional ‘supervision’ for the whole of their career to ensure that a high
standards are maintained. Therapists are also ethically and professionally bound to work
with clients only if measurable value can be demonstrated, this means that if people do
not actually NEED therapy, it is not ethical for therapists to make money through providing it.
Because of this relationship between coaching and psychology & the therapies, some
professionals offering coaching services are, in fact, therapists or psychologists who are
marketing their services under the names coaching and mentoring. This means it is possible
to offer the appropriate level of service depending on immediate needs and client preferences.
This also has the benefit of transcending some of the negative conceptions of what these services involve.
Services of this nature can often be found under the terms positive or coaching psychology to make it easier for clients to find service providers who take a psychological focus within their work as a coach. For an explanation of coaching psychology as an area of practice see www.coachingpsychologist.net/WhatIs/Index.php
Anyone seeking life improvement, and who is willing to work at the deeper issues, should
consider contracting a coach or mentor who does have a traditional therapeutic background in
the first instance. If the client is not sure if they have issues that would benefit from a
therapeutic intervention are encouraged to secure professional an assessment by an appropriately
In the UK the terms psychologist, therapist and counsellor are not restricted to who can use them so when selecting a coach or mentor with therapeutic or counselling skills it is important to
ensure they are accredited by the appropriate professional bodies e.g.
British Psychological Society,
British Psychoanalytic Council or British Association for Counselling. Note: in some countries the practice of psychology, psychotherapy and counselling are government regulated and practitioners should hold appropriate licenses.